MeMeA 2020

G. Cerro et al.,
“A real-time tracking system for tremor and trajectory estimation in Parkinson’s disease affected patients”,
in 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Medical Measurements and Applications (MeMeA), Bari, Italy, 2020, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/MeMeA49120.2020.9137210

The paper proposes a first step toward the realization of a low cost and scalable clinical device to monitor the evolution of Parkinson’s disease based on magnetic measurements. The main aim of the overall research project is the realization of an internet-connected device able to allow the execution of standardized tests and share results with specialized medical centers. At this stage, the system has been focused on two parameters useful for medical exams: tremor and hands trajectory. The paper describes the realized set-up based on fixed receiving coils and one mobile transmitting coil and proposes first experimental results executed on a robotic arm adopted as a reference. Obtained results clearly show the capability of the realized system to estimate the right frequency of the tremor and the identify the right trajectory even if high levels of tremor are applied.

Prototype 2.0 working

~30 measurements per second
Mean positioning error: 2 mm
Max positioning error: 8 mm

The robot is used to test the accuracy of the measurements.
Green dots and arrow: real position and attitude Red dots: measured position Yellow arrow: measured attitude

We will include all blueprints and and the list of materials


4th IEEE International Symposium
on System Engineering

Rome, Italy

Presented work:

  • Francesco Santoni, Alessio De Angelis, Antonio Moschitta and Paolo Carbone
    A Distributed Data Acquisition Architecture for Magnetic Positioning Systems

Abstract: We illustrate a devised and partially implemented data acquisition system (DAQ) for a magnetic positioning system (MPS) that is currently under development. This system aims to track position and attitude of an active transmitting coil (TX) supplied with a sinusoidal current, whose generated magnetic field induces tensions on an array of passive receiving coils (RX). The DAQ system has to acquire voltages from all RX coils. These signals are then processed according to a mathematical model in order to estimate the TX coordinates. In order to track the TX in real-time with a good resolution, data acquisition and processing have to be fast. In particular voltages have to be measured simultaneously on all RXs. To achieve this, we opted for a distributed architecture of microcontroller units (MCU). To acquire voltages, each MCU has four analog-to-digital converters (ADC) that can work in parallel. Moreover multiple MCUs can be triggered simultaneously by a single MCU in a master-slave configuration. We used MCUs with a fast dual-core CPU. Each unit can directly process its own acquired signals, then all data are sent to the master MCU, which estimates the coordinates of the TX. According to a preliminary analisys, this tracking system should achieve more than fifty coordinates measurements per second.


2° GMEE National Forum – Padova, Italy

Presented work:

  • A. De Angelis, G. De Angelis, F. Santoni, M. Dionigi, M. L. Fravolini, A. Comuniello, A. Moschitta, P. Carbone, P. Bellitti, M. Borghetti, M. Bona, M. Serpelloni, E. Sardini, F. Milano, D. Capriglione, M. Laracca, G. Miele, L. Ferrigno, G. Betta
    Six DOF Scalable Finger Tracking System

    Video shown during the presentation:
    Fast Real-time Acquisition with Magnetic Positioning System


2018 IEEE International Instrumentation
& Measurement Technology Conference

Houston, Texas, USA

Presented works

  • Francesco Santoni, Alessio De Angelis, Antonio Moschitta and Paolo Carbone
    Calibrating a magnetic positioning system using a robotic arm

Abstract: A robotic arm moving its end-effector along userdefined trajectories is used to calibrate a Magnetic Positioning System (MPS). The principle of operation of the positioning system is reviewed. Position and attitude of an active coil are estimated measuring the induced voltage on a set of fixed coils, with known position and versor. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is used to smooth the measured trajectories. In order to estimate the precision up to which ground-truth trajectories are
traced by the robotic arm, a calibration procedure of the robot is illustrated. The active coil is fixed on the end-effector of the robot, and ground-truth trajectories are then tracked in order to calibrate the whole MPS plus UKF system. A wide groundtruth trajectory is used to obtain a fine estimate of positions and versors of the fixed coils. Using the parameters thus obtained, several trajectories are tracked. The UKF is tuned in order to minimize the error affecting the estimated position and attitude of the active coil at each point of any trajectory.

Video shown during the presentation:
Real-time acquisition with Magnetic Positioning System

  • Alessio De Angelis, Paolo Carbone and Johan Schoukens
    Generating Low-Distortion Ternary Signals Using an Imperfect DAC and ADC Chain

Abstract: In this paper, the problem of generating ternary signals with high spectral purity using  imperfect equipment is addressed. In particular, a low-cost setup comprised of a nonuniform digital-to-analog converter (DAC), an analog filter, and a nonuniform analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is considered.
First, the effect of DAC nonlinearity on the spectrum of randomized constrained sequences (RCS) is described and validated. Then, based on this effect, a method for generating RCS signals with high spectral purity is proposed. The feasibility of this method is evaluated by numerical simulations and experimental tests.

  • Guido De Angelis, Alessio De Angelis, Antonio Moschitta and Paolo Carbone
    Identification of Resonant Circuits’ Parameters Using Weighted-Least-Squares Fitting

Abstract: Identification of RLC circuital parameters is investigated. We present a method for estimating the parameters of the circuit transfer function. The theoretical background is discussed, theoretical models are presented and experimentally validated. A practical implementation is presented and employed to validate the considered numerical models. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system provides a good accuracy measurement of the parameters of the resonant circuit.
The experimental results validate the considered numerical models with a discrepancy of less than 10% with respect to measurement models.

Report from Cassino

Today at the Department of Engineering of the University of Perugia, prof. Luigi Ferrigno from Cassino University reported the results of the in-anechoic chamber measurments performed on the first prototype of the magnetic positioning system. He presented the frequency response of receiving coils considering a passband relative to the -3 dB half signal amplitude points. He also showed the results of conducted immunity tests performed with a CDN (coupling decoupling networks) coupling a multisine disturbance to the system. The CDN was used to inject the disturbance toward the receiving coils or toward the data acquisition system. These results will be useful in order to design a new prototype more accurate and more robust with respect to EM disturbances.

Cassino meeting

This monday the Perugia group met their project partners at the University of Cassino. The aim of the meeting was to plan experimental activities of electromagnetic compatibility on the magnetic positioning system prototype prepared by the Perugia group.

The prototype has been mounted in the semi-anechoic chamber (see picture above) of the electric engineering department. The system has been tested first without any disturbances to characterize its ideal performances. Then a preliminary conducted immunity test has been performed using a continuous wave coupled through a CDN (coupling decoupling networks).

A set of tests has been planned to be conducted in the next days by the Cassino group. The CDN will be used to couple the system with continuous and modulated waves, exploring several amplitudes and bandwidths. These tests will allow to identify weak points of the system with respect to electromagnetic disturbances and how the latter influence the precision of positioning.

New article on Measurements Models for Magnetic Positioning

Comparison of Measurement Models for 3D Magnetic Localization and Tracking

Guido De Angelis, Alessio De Angelis, Antonio Moschitta and Paolo Carbone

Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2527


In this paper, we consider magnetic positioning and tracking of objects and provide a comparison of the characteristics of two major measurement models: the magnetic dipole model and the mutual inductance model. The numerical results obtained by applying these models to a short-range position measurement application, with a maximum operating distance of approximately 50 cm, are compared. Based on the results of this comparison, a prototype 9-sensor array is developed, experimental tests are performed, and extensive measurement results are presented. Outcomes show the feasibility of tracking the position and orientation of a mobile coil in real time with a median positioning error below 1 cm and a worst-case error of about 2 cm and 11 degrees inside a spatial region of 30 × 30 × 30 cm3 operational volume.

Link to the journal article:

IEEE Measurements & Networking 2017

We will present a project related research activitity at


Title: Accurate estimation of a coil magnetic dipole moment

A technique for accurate estimation of the moment of magnetic dipole is proposed. The achievable accuracy is investigated, as a function of measurement noise affecting estimation of magnetic field cartesian components. The proposed technique is validated both via simulations and experimentally.

Link to the journal article:

Learn more at the M&N 2017 Official Web Page


One of the project’s main activities has been presented atIMTC

Title: Analysis of simultaneous 3D positioning and attitude estimation of a planar coil using inductive coupling

Simultaneous estimation of 3D position and attitude of a single coil using a set of anchors, with known position and magnetic dipole, is analyzed. Effect of noise and geometric properties of the anchors’ constellation is considered. Several parameters are analyzed and discussed, including placement of anchors in a single or in multiple orthogonal planes. It is shown that adding space and orientation diversity anchors may lead to a more robust performance when the mobile node attitude changes in time.

Link to the journal article issued after the conference

See also the I²MTC 2017 Official Site